This Underwater Tunnel Connects Asia To Europe






Located in turkey's Bosphorus strait is an underwater double-deck tunnel that connects the continents of Europe and Asia within one city known as the Eurasia tunnel it links up the Istanbul European district of faith to the Istanbul Asian district of catechol and it's one of the most expensive transport projects in the country.
 Today we're going to take an in-depth look at the Eurasia tunnel from how it was created and where the money for the project came from we'll also examine the features it holds including a tech-filled museum on top of this, we'll take a gander at the nearby Marmara rail line as well so let's get started. Out of the whole project 14.6 kilometers or nearly 9.1 miles of  the road was constructed while the underwater tunnel itself also known as abrasion tunneling is 5.4 kilometers or nearly 3.4 miles  long it was created in order to allow light vehicles such as passenger cars and minibusses to travel across the water in record time previously the journey would have taken around 100 minutes but Eurasia was created to reduce it to 15 minutes. As a result according to turkey's Minister of transport and infrastructure adeel karaz miloglu the tunnel has brought in 6 billion Turkish lira around 692 million dollars into the economy since it opened in 2016. The government further states that the tunnel contributes 180 million euros around 20.8 million dollars per year to turkey's fuel economy another reason why the tunnel was built is due to pollution with less traffic being funneled the noise pollution would drop substantially and with the time of driving being reduced by 85 the pollution from fuel consumption is also vastly reduced however with the creation of such tunnel money needs to be made back in some way so the drivers are paying with a toll that increases regularly. When it was first opened the toll fee was 15 liters or 4.25 cents at the time now the one-way rate for a car is 46 liras or around 5.31 and for a minibus, it's 69 liras around 7.96 when Eurasia opened in 2016 turkey's president rajep Tayyip eriduan reportedly stated that no public funds were used to create the tunnel which is pretty impressive considering the project cost a massive 1.3 billion dollars but where did the country get the fundings from well back in 2009 a joint venture to be the contractors for the tunnel was signed by two firms in turkey and South Korea those companies being yappy murkisi and ask group respectively together they formed atas as a result, this new consortium owns around 50 percent of the tunnel and is set to run the project until 2043.
They also funneled around 285 million dollars in funds collectively however they would need a lot more
a number of banks provided loans to help fund the project one of which was the European Bank for reconstruction and development this organization provided a loan of 150 million dollars which is still being repaid while the European investment bank provided 350 million dollars altogether over 960 million dollars was generated from loans however, in march of 2021 reports came out that sk the group were looking to sell their shares in the tunnel, the firm currently owns 18 the idea for this tunnel was first discussed all the way back in 1997 over the ensuing years various studies were conducted to see how beneficial the project could be and whether it was possible at all by 2011 construction got officially underway now known as wsp the American firm was responsible for the design the tunnel is stacked to allow easy passage for journeys from both sides of Istanbul each side has two lanes for the vehicles to travel on according to wsp the tunnel consists of quote a 45-foot diameter board submarine tunnel over two miles long and twin new Austrian tunneling method tunnels each 0.6 miles and quote at its lowest depth the tunnel reaches 330 feet below the sea's surface other aspects of the tunnel such as technical advisory environmental monitoring and traffic audit services were handled by British company aerup and American firms hntb and jacobs engineering group when excavation began a german-made tunnel boring machine nicknamed lightning bayezid was used the machine reportedly cost 150 million dollars also according to reports the excavated the material was enough to fill 788 Olympic-sized swimming pools whilst to build Eurasia the cement could fill 18 stadiums and the iron could create 10 Eiffel towers one of the biggest considerations of the project was its proximity to the northern Anatolian fault as this area has been responsible for a number of earthquakes that have affected Istanbul the tunnel is only 16 kilometers or 9.9 miles from the fall due to the tunnel being surrounded by both soft and hard ground the design had to take into account an earthquake could move the tunnel to ease this issue two seismic joints were installed 524 meters or 1719 feet apart these joints allow the tunnel to shift 50 millimeters or 2 inches transversely and 75 millimeters around 3 inches longitudinally during a quake according to reports the construction fees alone totaled 814 million dollars in order to keep drivers safe the Eurasia tunnel is filled with a number of features the german engineering company bosch is responsible for most of the safety aspects Marat asghachan who is leading the projects stated we have installed 5500 fire detectors in the tunnel automated detectors sounders and manual call points ensure that any fires can be detected very quickly end quote on top of this there are more than 100 emergency phones installed on both levels there are at least 500 video cameras for the bosch team to view traffic conditions within Eurasia the data is sent to a safety control center that's based at the tunnel the center is immediately alerted for any car accidents thanks to this system during 2020 when there was an accident or car breaking down the authorities got there within one minute and 58 seconds then traffic returned to normal within 14 minutes and 13 seconds for those that need extra help every 200 meters or 656 feet are emergency rooms that allow passengers inside the tunnel to move between the two decks the lighting within Eurasia was designed by Croatian artist dean Skira he teamed up with Italian lighting company igutsini to design the tunnel's interior the lighting heavily uses the color blue it was chosen by skeera after he examined traditional Turkish iconography in 2017 they won the prestigious illumination award of merit from the illuminating engineering society iguzini also brought in a revenue of 238 million euros around 290 million dollars during 2018. In order to celebrate this engineering marvel there's the Eurasia museum located in the entrance hall of the Eurasia tunnel control building the 861 square foot museum was designed by avja architects the area provides information on how the tunnel was created and the various technologies used the museum uses a number of interactive screens to engage with those looking to learn more about the tunnel the user interface for the screens and the technical aspects were designed by a berlin-based user pusher nerd working and no lab they created eight iPad touchscreens and an interactive round table for the public to enjoy according to the architectural journal the cost of the museum came to 165 000 English pounds or 234 000 us dollars around half a mile away from the Eurasia tunnel is the Marmara tunnel opened in 2013 this tunnel connects the Marmara rail line that links Istanbul's European district of zetenbernu to the Asian district of catacoi its creation was hindered with delays originally building the tunnel began in 2004. however shortly after excavations began the tunnel project hit a problem in the form of ancient artifacts being discovered the delays reportedly cost the project 1 million dollars per day in lost revenue the tunnel is 8.5 miles long
underneath the Bosphorus strait whilst the whole line is 47 miles long the whole project was reported to cost 4.5 billion dollars with the japan bank of International cooperation loaning funds of 950 million dollars final fact finish one of the most expensive Yalies put on the market in turkey was called the marshall zeki pasha mansion this waterfront property along Istanbul's Bosphorus was built over 130 years ago and has 23 rooms altogether in 2011 it was on the market for around 115 million dollars and then in 2018 it returned with an asking price of 95 million dollars.

 thanks for reading  we'll see you next time.

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